This research program is established to deepen the knowledge of coopetition by examining the particular situation of emergence and dissemination of standards. We believe that the standards offer a promising framework to better identify and characterize inter-organizational strategies including coopetition. De jure standards are defined through standards bodies (Standards Development Organization SDO) that lead competitors to cooperate if they want to come to the creation and publication of a standard. Once issued these standards, which have a voluntary status, must win the support of users and their distribution on the market depends on the situations of cooperation, coopetition, coalition, alliances, all of which we want to understand .
The emergence of standards also offers the possibility of analyzing aggressive competitive situations. The war of standards in the network technologies lead to the final disposal of the loser. Interestingly, the standard as collective strategic instrument produces unprecedented competitive situations: aggresive competition between standards in network technologies, value conflicts in the certification for sustainable forest management, battles of legitimacy in the new markets of unconventional materials or accounting standards. We wish to address a variety of areas (accounting standards, document formats, forest certification, environmental standards, and financial standards) to better understand the determinants and characteristics of relational strategies in the emergence of standards.